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Sugarcane Production

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Insect - Pest Management

Disease management

Disease management:

Diseases are one of the major constraints in the profitable cultivation of sugarcane. The following diseases are responsible for reducing cane yield and deterioratiing juice quality

1).Red rot: Red rot is caused by the fungus colletotrichum falcatum the diseases appears from july till the crop is harvested .The top leaves of the affected canes lose color and then wither. later, the whole clump dries up.On splitting open the Cane, the tissue is found to be reduced but the discolouration is not uniform and is interspersed with white patches running cross the width of the split cane.The affected pith emits disease are as follows:

i. Plant the seed from absolutely disease free seed plot.

ii. Grow varieties resistant to red rot.

iii.Crush the affected crop early and plough up the fields soon after harvesting the crop, collect and burn the stunnles.

iv. Rogue out and burn the diseased canes, uproot the entire clumps and not merely the affected stalks.

v. Do not ratoon the diseased crop.

vi. Do not plant sugarcane in the disease affected fields for one years

2). Wilt: The disease is caused by cephalosporium sacchari or fusarium moniliforme . It appears from july till the crop is harvested. The leaves of the affected cane at first turn yellow and finally the top dries up. On splitting open a diseased cane. the pith shows a dirty red discoloration near the nodes, the discoloration is invariably darker than that in the remaining portion the internodes. The affected stalks become light and hollow. The control measures against this disease are the same as those of red rot. As the causal fungus persists in the soil over long period, the affected field or patches should be carefully marked out and not put under sugarcane cultivation

3). Smut: It is caused by Ustilago scitaminea The diease is prevalent throughout the year but is severe from may to july. Its incidence increases in the ratoon crop . It is easily recognised by the appearance of long whip-like shoots covered with dusty black mass of spores.These whips may arise from the top of the canes as well as from the lateral buds. the control measures against this disease are as follows

i. Use only smut free canes for seed.

ii. Remove the smutted whips gentty (without shakin)after putting them inside a closely woven drill bag. Then uproot the entire clumps and burn bury them deep. Immerse the bag used for collecting the smutted whips in boiling water for 5 minutes after every roguing of the crop

iii. Do not ratoon the smutted crop.

iv. For surface disinfestation, treat the seed setts with 0.25 percent emisan i.e 250 g in 100 litres of water.

4). Ratoon stunting disease (RSD):- A coryniform bacterium has been found to be associated with the diseas. the affected crop remains stunted with short and thin canes. the leaves are comparatively pale and the roots are poorly developed .The disease can be identified by slicing mature canes longitudinally a little below the rind with a sharp knife. In the lower part of the node, parallel to the zone of the whitish waxy band , the pith shows discolored dots, commas and straight or bent streaks upto 2-3 mm in length. they may be yellow, orange, pink, red or reddish brown. do not use the diseased crop for planting selection the cane seed from a vigorously growing and healthy crop. The moist hot air treatment of seed canes at 54.c for 4 hours is effective in destroying the causal organism . Do not ratoon the diseased crop.

5). Grassy shoot disease (GSD): The disease is caused by mycoplasma like bodies. The affected plants give rise numerous thin tillers, the leaves become reduced in size , thin and narrow and usually turn chlorotic. If the attack is light , one or two weak canes may be formed uproot and destroy the affected clumps promptly. The moist hot air treatment of the seed canes at 54. c for 4 hours inactivates the causal organisms of this disease. Its incidence increases in the ratoon crop, therefore do not ratoon the diseased crop.

6). Red stripe: Red stripe is a bacterial disease caused by Pseudomonas rubrineans. It appears during june - august. The affected leaves show bright red streaks which are long, narrow and run longitudinally on the leaf- blade, causing the ratoon of tops in severe cases rogue out the affected canes and burn them.

7). Top rot:This disease is caused by fusarium moniliforme . It appears during the rainy season from july - september. The young leaves in the top portion of the plant become chlorotic at the base and get distorted and shortened. they turn dark red and fall off gradually. In severe cases, the rotting of the top portion of the cane occurs. remove the affected clumps and bury them.


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